Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Many students enter high school with a pessimistic mindset that is on the verge of rupturing in a total disaster. Fortunately, I was not one of those students. Ironically, I was just the opposite. I entered the walls of high school with much more than a faint feeling of trepidation. I entered, rather, with an indefinable desire to seek opportunities beyond the basics of what I was already capable of doing. The huge new school was both frightening and exciting for a 13 year old girl who was ready to make an impact on the world. That same 13 year old girl is now beyond the fears, beyond the anxiety, and beyond the anticipation. She has now surpassed 3 years of high school and is one step closer to achieving her dreams. Once I reached high school, the challenging educational opportunities that were kept at a minimum in previous schools, were suddenly awaiting me and fueling my passion to better myself. I took advantage of an honors math class my freshmen year due to my immense passion f or the subject, but as I advanced up to a higher grade, my mindset advanced as well. My 9th grade english teacher inspired me to not only become a better writer, but also convinced me to push myself beyond my expectations. Once I had reached my junior year, I took one of the greatest educational opportunities I could have ever imagined. It was a class that brilliantly combined AP English with AP United States History into one class, and for this reason, it was considered one of the hardestShow MoreRelatedGraduation Speech : High School934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslife would be graduation. For many people, graduating from high school is an objective. It takes a lot of time, effort, and determination to accomplish that goal. For others graduation is the end of high school, and the beginning of a new chapter in life. When graduated people feel as if adulthood has begun. In the long run, graduating opens a lot of opportunities for people to thrive. I can almost reminisce the day as if it was yesterday. I was sitting in bed like any other school day. It seemedRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAccording to a report from Thomas Nelson Community College website, 15.7 percent is the graduation rate in 2010. 84 percent of students failed to receive their degree. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s beyond sad. College can be difficulty especially with everyday life is getting harder to main family life work and financials. Because college is challenging, I know that I have issues that I must overcome. I told myself the more patient s I have the better success I will have. Although college will be difficult my goal isRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Essay2254 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages The day I graduated from high school The High school graduation day is a life full of journeys for everyone, high school life is a memorable time for most people, for me as well. High school can be filled with lots of good memories for some people and it could be filled with bad memories, for me it was both I had good times and I had bad times. The High school Graduation day should definitely be the best day of your life because that means no more high school, no more having to wake up at 6Read MoreGraduation Speech : High School Graduation854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfail High School graduation can be an exciting time in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is a time in their lives where they begin to experience the kind of freedom that comes along with growing up. This freedom allows students to choose the type of college or University they would like to attend. It is necessary that they understand how responsible they need to be with the freedom that is being offered to them. When choosing what college or university to attend it may be tempting to want to go to a school thatRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Graduation1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesForest English 1010 9/9/2014 Graduation During our lives, most of us have hated getting up early. Whether we as humans enjoy mornings or not, weÃ¢â¬â¢re always looking forward to that unforgettable day. That special is high school graduation for me. Graduation is a ceremony that recognizes students that have excelled through school. Graduation was one of the best days of my life, perhaps even better than the day that I started college. There is no other day like graduation where there comes this feelingRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Graduation933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHigh School Graduation With regards to high school graduation, Balfanz, Herzog, and Iver (2007) followed 12,972 Philadelphia students enrolled in traditional middle schools from six grade (1996-1997) until 1 year beyond their expected graduation from high school (2003-2004) in order to understand what indicators would affect their projected graduation date. Unlike many of the early K-8 schools, the population Balfanz et al followed consisted of 64% African American, 19% White, 12% Hispanic,Read MoreGraduation Speech On High School Graduation851 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere Is No Success Without The Opportunity to Fail High School graduation can be an exciting time in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is a time when they begin to experience the kind of freedom that comes along with growing up. This freedom allows students to choose the type of college or University they would like to attend. It is necessary that they understand how responsible they need to be with the freedom that is being offered to them. When choosing what college or university they would like toRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesup, I loved going to school and dreamed of one day attending college. Attending school every day and receiving good grades had become my top priority from K-12. I excelled from K-8th grade, but entering into high school was completely different than primary school. The atmosphere and environment was new to me, I was free to roam the halls or walk back out the door without any repercussions. This began my downward spiral in high school. My freshman year was by far the best school year for me becauseRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHigh school was one of the most challenging moments in my life. Not only did I have to deal with the academic pressures and social issues from my peers I had external factors that were heavily impacting me as well. During my junior year my mom separated from her husband and me and my three little brothe rs ended up staying house to house with close relatives. Shortly after that time at the beginning of my senior year, my mom was sent to prison. In the midst of dealing with all of the demands thatRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School Essay1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen I was in high school I had one goal, I would graduate top of my class and go to the University of Florida for pre-medicine, then onto their medical school. I never considered that I would want anything else, so I went to a specialty high school that would allow me to specialize in Biomedical sciences(STEM) and never even thought about the possibility of a life other than the one I had so precisely planned out for myself. When my nephews were born my sophomore year all of my priorities changed
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 932 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/01 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Odyssey Essay Did you like this example? Essay on the Odyssey The Odyssey begins in medias res (in the middle of things). This epic tells the story of one manÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage home despite a series of antagonists that make the journey incredibly long and grueling for the hero, Odysseus. Some of these antagonists include Greek gods, mythical creatures, and even a slothful crew. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Xenia And Odyssey" essay for you Create order The story also observes the impact that OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s absence has on his wife, Penelope, and his growing son, Telemachos. Despite the different points of view in the epic, one important theme is explored throughout both plots, xenia. This Grecian concept, roughly translated as Ã¢â¬Å"a formal friendship,Ã¢â¬ carries a significant amount of weight within the epic. Xenia is a concept similar to hospitality, placing an obligation on both the host and the guest to create a strong relationship based on cultural respect for one another. However, it was based on a set of rules and customs that was much more than simply being gracious and considerate in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Disrespecting xenia is what is said to have begun the Trojan War, clearly establishing the importance of this model. The function of xenia assists the development of the plot in both positive and negative ways. Some positive examples of respecting xenia include TelemachosÃ¢â¬â¢s stay in Sparta and OdysseusÃ¢â¬â ¢s stay with NausicaÃ ¤. Consequences of disrespecting xenia within the Odyssey are shown first when Odysseus encounters Polyphemus and upon his return home when he confronts PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s suitors. Another prominent example of xenia is seen in book 6 when Odysseus comes upon NausicaÃ ¤. Odysseus had become shipwrecked and sought shelter in a bush. He awoke when he heard NausicaÃ ¤ and her handmaids screaming while playing with a ball they had inadvertently kicked into a nearby river. Odysseus, dirty, naked, and covered with nothing but an olive branch, approached the women. All of the handmaids ran from the hideous man Ã¢â¬Å"besmirched with brineÃ¢â¬ except NausicaÃ ¤, who remembered her obligations to xenia (Odyssey, 6:127). As Odysseus recalled how he ended up in such a predicament, NausicaÃ ¤ began taking pity on the stranger and offered him what she could saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Because you have come to our land and city, you shall not lack clothing nor anything else appropriate to a suppliant who has suffered a long time and then come our wayÃ¢â¬ (Odyssey, 6:181-183). She then called back her handmaids to help care for the stranger reminding them that Ã¢â¬Å"all stranger s and beggars are from Zeus, and a small gift is a dear oneÃ¢â¬ (Odyssey, 6:195-196). After imploring her handmaids to help, they then took Odysseus to the river and bathed him. NausicaÃ ¤ provided him with clean clothing and offered him food and drink. These are all examples of good xenia to a stranger, even one in as poor a condition as Odysseus was when they found him. She ensured he was cared for and even offered a parting gift by helping him approach her parents and win them over, so he would have a better chance of receiving the knowledge and tools he needed to return home. However, when xenia is not respected it leads to negative consequences. Such is the case of OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter with the cyclops Polyphemus. This episode establishes the consequences that come with the failing of xenia and can be weighed against the previous examples of providing said hospitality. When Zeus sends a storm to Odysseus and his crew, they end up sailing into the Ã¢â¬Å"land of the arrogant and lawless CyclopesÃ¢â¬ (Odyssey, 9:98). As they search for food and shelter Odysseus explains to his men that the inhabitants of the island Ã¢â¬Å"do not have assemblies where they discuss policies, nor do they establish rules Ã¢â¬ ¦ nor do they care about one anotherÃ¢â¬ (Odyssey, 9:103-106). When the men come across a cave full of cheese, sheep, whey and milk, they implore Odysseus to get what they need and leave, but he refused, saying the dweller of the cave may have gifts for them, as laid out in the principles of xenia. The encounter began as proper xenia should as Polyphemus questions the men. In order to adhere to xenia, one must create a relationship by learning the identities of said guests. Polyphemus asks the men Ã¢â¬Å"Strangers! Now who are you? From where do you sail the watery paths?Ã¢â¬ (Odyssey, 9:235-236). Odysseus answers honestly and describes their treacherous journey through ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢s storms. Upon realizing Polyphemus would not know the customs of xenia, Odysseus tells the cyclops, Ã¢â¬Å"We come to you on our knees, as suppliants, in the hopes ha you might give us a gift-token or some other present, as is the custom among strangers,Ã¢â¬ therefore presenting the cyclops with the opportunity to provide them with basic necessities, an element of hospitality that is tradition in this culture (Odyssey, 9:248-250). In spite of this honesty, Polyphemus refuses to accept this and begins to suddenly devour OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s crew. He proceeds to move a large rock and trap the men in the cave, promising Odysseus the gift-token of eating him last. These acts completely disrespect the concept of xenia. By allowing Odysseus to realize he no longer had the obligation to follow this practice, he was able to trick Polyphemus and escape the cave. One of the most obvious examples of bad xenia in the Odyssey is the treatment of OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ family, and Odysseus himself, by the suitors who have come seeking PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in marriage. This episode shows how not following the practices of xenia can lead to extreme consequences and how without an obligation to be hospitable, one instead is allowed to become hostile.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
My Personal Development Goals Please read the narrative and fill in the yellow boxes! My Name:felisha brown I wish to be successful in college, my career, and my personal life. I started at DeVry with the intention of doing well in my classes, learning essent my program, and attaining appropriate employment. These are my overall goals. To achieve those goals, I need to make positive changes to imp skills, and so on. In COLL148, I completed numerous self-assessments, examined my prior experiences, consulted with others, and considered my identified the following areas in which I want to make positive changes to promote my personal success. Based on my COLL148 assessments and reflections, the four success skill areas I most wantÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Statement of Intent: I agree to start working on my SMART goals today so I can be successful with my larger goa Signature 12/5/2013 Date Felisha brown My Personal Development Goals Please read the narrative and fill in the yellow boxes! reer, and my personal life. I started at DeVry with the intention of doing well in my classes, learning essential skills and information, completing employment. These are my overall goals. To achieve those goals, I need to make positive changes to improve in my habits, attitudes, learning ted numerous self-assessments, examined my prior experiences, consulted with others, and considered my own future. As a result, I have I want to make positive changes to promote my personal success. d reflections, the four success skill areas I most want to improve on beginning now include: background: how weakness in these skill areas may have gotten in the way of my success in the past, my related assessment results that helped motivation to improve in each area. one of my weakest links every since I can remember reading. I have found out why. It has been that way because I was never interested in what I hen I took college classes in 2004 I guess because I thought I was taking classes that didnt pertain to my major. After taking this class i have really ading even when it is not for my class. Now i read with the mindset that i can retain this info for later use even if it is to help someone else along eShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : My Motivation1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconstant motivation. As a kid I would spend a lot of my time reading and I would do so in what I considered my best friend, a huge pine tree in our front yard. As strange as it may sound I fell in love with not only that specific tree, but all trees. Since that time IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never felt any less towards all nature and wildlife and I hope to one day educate on that subject. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll reach that goal because of one thing. Motivation. To give you an inside look at where my motivation comes from and my initialRead MorePersonal Statement : Motivation Is Not Worth It Through My High School And College Career1856 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesquick to realize motivation is a necessity to make it through my high school and college career. I believe that I am one of the lucky ones that received many sources of motivation. At first, my intentions were very simplistic. It was a simple thoughtÃ¢â¬âgraduate. I was a go od student, but coming to this school teaches that you need to be more than Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ to make it. Coming from a household where I was neglected I felt a sense to prove myself. I was self-motivated to prove myself to my family and thoseRead MorePersonal Vision Statement : My Vision751 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesVision Statement Introduction I am writing this statement as a declaration of my personal vision. It will serve as a guide to help ensure that my actions are corresponding to what I envision. This personal vision statement is designed to help facilitate my purpose, unforeseen obstacles, and how to manage theses obstacles. A great deal of thought has gone into constructing this vision statement and I hope that within time these endeavors fill me with a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. My VisionRead MoreCareer And Career Careers : Career I Most Like For Me Are, Management Accountant And Elementary Teacher981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfinancial operating statements and posting journal entries to the general ledger providing general support to other areas of the accounting bookkeeping department researching and preparing management reports Evaluating subsidiary journals for errors and omissions and entering corrected date into the general ledger Reviewing the monthly balance sheet and profit and loss (PL) statement Preparing state tax reports Reconciling daily cash flow statements to monthly bankRead MoreThe Impact Of Expectancy Theory On The Individual Values1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A job will only be motivating if it leads to rewards that the individual valuesÃ¢â¬ , before considering the statement it is first important to understand motivation. Motivation is a broad, decision-making concept in which behaviour can be commenced and conducted, by a desire for fulfilment (Huczynski and Buchanan, 1991). Having a motivated workforce is vital for a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity and growth, however how best to motivate employees is subject to much debate, with many theories providing conflictingRead MoreManagement Position Of A Nonprofit Organization1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgoals in accordance with the mission statement. Drucker states, Ã¢â¬Å"a mission statement has to be operational, otherwise itÃ¢â¬â¢s just good intentionsÃ¢â¬ (Drucker, Chapter 1). The primary focus of the mission statement is to carry out wh at the organization really wants to do. My task is to try and convert this mission statement into specifics so that the company stays in line with its mission statement for desired results. Drucker believes that every mission statement must include three things: opportunitiesRead MoreA Pattern Based Discourse Analysis1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesResults In the transcript I have identified a pattern based Discourse Analysis, as the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative begins with more general/health related motivations for exercise based on the first theme, Ã¢â¬ËThe Way we WereÃ¢â¬â¢. However, as the interview continues, a pattern of more personal motivations become apparent; and from them a dualistic internal discourse develops around the Ã¢â¬ËSelf-empowerment or Path to Burnout?Ã¢â¬â¢ theme. From it emerges a secondary narrative, in which the participant cites bothRead MoreEssay On Health Care Development1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthey have suffered from an acute illness. My unit will be focused on how to support recovery to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s best possible health status promoting seniorsÃ¢â¬â¢ opportunities to return to their home after an acute hospitalization. I believe that this development design framework will be a successful planning template for creating medical step down unit. The first section of this paper discuss es the description of the proposed unit including a mission statement, prioritized values, and an organizationalRead MoreMotivation And Its Impact On Performance860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMotivation and its Impact on Performance Tony Mcalphin, Student Eastern Florida State College A personsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance is dependent on their willingness to accomplish a goal. There are different aspects that make up motivation and performance. In this paper, we will learn what defines both motivation and performance, and how they affect each other. What is Motivation? A personÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation is what drives them to set a goal and accomplish it. Merriam-Webster(2013) describes motivation as, Ã¢â¬Å"the generalRead MoreArticle Review - Ã¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ºHow Motivation Affects Learning and BehaviourÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ¹ by J.E. Ormrod822 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArticle Review - Ã¢â¬Å"How Motivation Affects Learning and BehaviourÃ¢â¬ by J.E. Ormrod This article reveals six effects of motivation towards Learning and Behaviour. To begin with, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are introduced as two major motivations that drive a person in their actions. When I bumped onto this article, I thought all points in this article are prior knowledge of everybody in education field. Until I found other articles that made my eyes opened and starting to disagree. The contradiction
The author of the story under discussion is Richard Matheson, an American author and screenwriter, primarily in the fantasy, horror, and science fiction genres. Ã¢â¬Å"Born of Man and WomanÃ¢â¬ , a 1950 short story by Richard Matheson, is about a young child, born an ugly creature, who is kept chained in the basement by its parents and frequently beaten. The key of the story is horrific, since the author depicts terrifying and chilling scenes of the child`s miserable life, the hatred and cruelty of adults and the tragedy of a little boy. The story is written in the form of a diary of the main protagonist, a young boy, who is outcasted by a man and a woman who gave him a birth. The author uses indirect methods of characterization through his parent`s description: Ã¢â¬Å"you retch she saidÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Mother so pretty and me decent enough. Look at you he said and didnt have the nice faceÃ¢â¬ . We will write a custom essay sample on Born of Man and Woman or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Being beaten by his parents, the boy excretes green liquid: I spilled some of the drip on the floor from one arm. It was not nice. It made ugly green on the floor, thus we find out that he is not quite s human creature, the facts that he has got more than one pair of legs and can run on the walls maintain this idea: I will screech and laugh loud. I will run on the walls. Last I will hang head down by all my legs and laugh and drip green all over until they are sorry they didnt be nice to me and My legs slip on them because I dont walk on stairs. My feet stick to the wood. The abrupt and broken sentences enlarge the characteristics of the protagonist, for example, such metaphors and similes: water falling from upstairs, the ground it sucked up the water like thirsty lips. It drank too much and it got sick and runny brown (about the rain) as well as the metaphors: goldness in the upstairs (about the sun), little mother and little father (about children), The big machine swallows them and rolls out past and is gone (about the bus) reveal the fact that the boy is uneducated and undeveloped, but in spite of this he remains curious. He is able to pull his chain out of the wall and is able to observe what happens outside, in the real world, through a little basement window. Being a child though, he needs love and to be loved. Notwithstanding the hatred of his parents he still loves them and such sentences manifest to this idea: Mother is a pretty I know, Mother so pretty, he likes laugh and wants to play with other children: I like to know why there are laughs forÃ¢â¬ ¦. I hear the laughing some more. I talk to the sound and look through to the people. Ã¢â¬ ¦ I thought I should laugh with them and later: I heard little laughs very high. I looked out the window. I saw all little people like the little mother and little fathers too. They are pretty. These facts reveal that protagonist, despite his physical ugliness and abnormality, is still a human being, with all its needs and emotions. But any creature, being treated awfully and cruelly, becomes violent and fierce itself. Thus the horrible culmination of the story comes then the child relates an incident where his young sister (which he refers to as a Ã¢â¬Å"little motherÃ¢â¬ ) comes to see him in the basement with her pet. When the pet smells him and attacks him, he crushes it to death. The last diary entry takes place after a beating from his father. As the child is going over the events in his mind, we learn that he knocked the stick from his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s hand and made some noises. Then, he begins to ponder over some tactics to use if his parents do not treat him better in the future.
Question: Discuss about the Interpersonal Management and Communication. Answer: Introduction: Interpersonal communication also known as face-to-face communication is defined as the process through which people exchange their ideas, feelings, meaning and information through either verbal or non-verbal messages. It not only means the actual words/ message being said but also the language, tonal variation, facial expressions, body language and gestures used between the sender and the receipt. Some key elements of interpersonal communication that have been identified are a) the communicators; b) the message; c) noise; d) feedback; e) the channel; and f) the context (Baker, 2013). At the workplaces, it is important to provide feedback in a constructive and an effective manner without being offensive or causing confusions. Under interpersonal communication skills, effective feedback should be heard clearly, understood, and accepted. There are several ways in which the communicator can use to ensure the effectiveness of the feedback provided. One, the feedback provided should focus on behavior and not personality (De Janasz, et al., 2014). Two, the feedback should communicate how the message has affected you. Three, the feedback ought to be specifically focussed on the original message which it intends to respond to. Four, the feedback ought to be timely: the response becomes irrelevant as time passes by. And lastly, the feedback should pick a moment when the communicator is ready for it (Sommer, 2012. Conversely, the recipient of the feedback should be a good listener. He/ she should just listen attentively and stop thinking about the reply. He/ she should conc entrate on the non-verbal elements as well (Beebe, et al., 2014). The application of interpersonal communication is important to the organizations, especially when relating to the employees. First, it helps in giving and collecting information. Second, it helps in maintaining and forming relationship with and among the workers. Third, helps in expressing personal needs as well as in understanding each other (Baker, 2013). Fourth, contribute to solving problems and making decisions. And, lastly, interpersonal communication skills assists in regulating power (Sommer, 2012). References Baker, A., 2013. Feedback and organizations: Feedback is good, feedback-friendly culture is better. Canadian Psychology, 54(4), pp. 260-268. Beebe, S., Beebe, S. Redmond, M., 2014. Interpersonal Communication: relating to others. 7th Edition ed. Boston: Allyn Bacon. De Janasz, S., Crossman, J., Campbell, N. Power, M., 2014. Interpersonal skills in organizations. 2nd ed. North Ryde, NSW: Mc-Graw-Hill Education. Sommer, K. L., 2012. Does constructive performance feedback improve citizenship intentions and job satisfaction? The roles of perceived opportunities for advancement, respect, and mood. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(2), pp. 177-201.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Introduction Politics and economics have become interlinked in the recent times to an extent that It has become difficult to identify which between them has more weight especially when put in the perspectives of international trade and relations. How countries interact and inter-relate has ability to influence the trade patterns, decisions and prospect both in domestic and international arena.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The International Arms Trade specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One international aspect that has characterized nationÃ¢â¬â¢s bilateral trade relations has to do with military arms. Key suppliers of military arms especially from developed nations to developing nations have established trade relations based on military arms in that, all economic aspects and principles are fully in operation and any form of destabilization has the capability of affecting both the domestic and international trade of the involved countries. However, how does the effect of either stability or instability of international arms trade between different countries able to affect the domestic market environment in terms of exchange rates, interest rates, trading volume or composition, exports, imports, travel, government revenue, or impacts on specific industries. At the same time, what is evident is that some countries specifically the chief suppliers have consistently participated in providing assistance to efforts by domestic exporters of arms especially with regard to increasing competition in the international arms market. Therefore, this paper will investigate, analyze, and recommend on the recent threats of China to institute trade embargos on American exports to the country because of America selling military arms to Taiwan. The essence will be to find out how such trade embargos can affect the domestic market, arms industry and even trade volume of the country into ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s mar ket. Political-economic relation of international arms trade International trade of arms increased especially after the Second World War and reached climax in 1982. During the Cold war, numerous efforts by nations saw arms trade go up but the opposite of this was to be experienced in post-Cold War era as decline in arms trade was great. Arms trade decline ebbed in 2002 but starting from 2005-2009, the world again experienced one of the biggest arms trade between the major suppliers and their consumers chiefly in developing countries. International arms trade continues to be dominated by five chief suppliers, who again happen to be the permanent members of Security Council. They include USA, the former Soviet Union, France, United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany.Advertising Looking for term paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today, USA has become the major and leading arms suppl ier in the world where its trade accounts for almost 30 per cent of all arms trade in the world, followed by Russia at 23 per cent, Germany 11 per cent, France 8 per cent and United Kingdom at 4 per cent which when totaled comes to 76per cent of all worldÃ¢â¬â¢s arms trade. Developing a political-economic model of USA bilateral trade, Rebecca in 1989 noted that there exists an interrelationship between politics and economics and that numerous factors exist, which affect the bilateral trade flows between countries. According to the author, the profound interrelationship between politics and economics was widely evident in international relations where it was clear that some countries adopt certain and specific international strategic and diplomatic interest which in turn had the capacity to affect their international economic policy. For instance, when a country initiates certain sanctions, this aspect of international politics has the ability to affect international trade po licy. In accordance to this, one question postulated by Frey in 1984 continue to perplex if not to guide the international economists, the author noted then that, Ã¢â¬Å"are international political considerations transient and random in nature whereby they are able to affect international economics and can they be ignored when compared to long-run market factors?Ã¢â¬ . USA as the biggest worldÃ¢â¬â¢s arms supplier By the year 2009, USA total arms trade was estimated to be $166.278 for both the developing and industrialized markets and when compared with other key suppliers, USA was seen to account for almost 40per cent. The developing countries remain to be one of the best arms market for USA and even with the pangs of recession countries such as China, Saudi Arabia, Middle East and India have remained as the biggest consumers of arms from USA. In terms of arms that are sold by USA to its partners, different items are transacted such as Ã¢â¬Å"tanks and self-propelle d guns, artillery, armored personnel carriers and armored cars, major surface combatants, minor surface combatants, submarines, guided missile patrol boats, supersonic combat aircraft, subsonic combat aircraft, other aircraft, helicopters, surface-to-surface missiles, and anti-ship missilesÃ¢â¬ . When analysis of trade reports from arms is made, it becomes clear that the five chief suppliers of arms accrue more income from the arms sales to developing or third world countries than they are able to give in aid.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The International Arms Trade specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For a long time, the arms industry unlike other convectional industries has operated without regulation making a lucrative business for the chief suppliers. Since the domestic market has less demand for the manufactured arms there are always constant efforts of searching for new markets elsewhere as more arms corporations and contractors become more involved in order to stay relevant in the industry. Further, these arms corporation are always involved in seeking government subsidies in order to make their trade more profitable. Such a case can be cited from USA and other European corporations, which in the recent past have been awarded enormous tax breaks by their respective countries, and of interest is the fact that they even lend money to developing countries in order for the countries to purchase arms from them hence leading to subsidies of arms sales. According to Holtom and Bromley, USA since 2001 has accelerated its foreign military aid specifically to its allies in regions perceived to be of great tension and conflict. And as a gesture to continue with BushÃ¢â¬â¢s administration policy on international arms trade, ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s administration has in the recent time increased its foreign military financing to its key Middle East ally, Israel which has been estimat ed to reach $3 billion by the year 2012. Graph showing USAÃ¢â¬â¢s arms and equipment sales from 1996 to 2006 Source: Washington Office on Latin America 2009. The role of arms trade in mainstream economy Nations that have been involved in arms trade cite different reasons for their activities. Although many have cited increasing security instability as the motive issue, what is evident is that most of these trades are being motivated by economic factors. For instance, supplier countries have continued to experience economic growth as a result of arms trade. Sale of arms generates revenue and in some instances offset the cost of imports to rectify the trade imbalances being experienced of a particular country. Furthermore, arms trade involves private investors who largely are motivated by profit both in national and international business deals. Sale of arms to foreign markets has also been motivated by the fact that such sales are able to support producers especially w hen their domestic market reduces.Advertising Looking for term paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More so, the sale of arms involves employees normally located and based at the prime defense contractors together with laborers at second and third-tier contractors who assume the role of supplying the major contractors with vital sub-components. Especially in USA, elected representatives from some of the communities that benefit from arms sales and transacting activities have been at forefront in supporting and pushing for foreign arms sales in order for their constituencies or regions to continue benefiting. In terms of providing connectivity, international arms trade has promoted this kind of relationship between the seller and buyer providing a chance for inter-operability that benefits other businesses between the two countries. Lastly, international arms trade makes it possible for production lines to remain open and operating even in circumstances of decline in domestic market. USAÃ¢â¬â¢s Value of arms exported between 1992 and 2000 Source: THE U.S. DEFENSE IND USTRY AND ARMS SALES. (http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297a/U.S.%20Defense%20Industry%20and%20Arms%20Sales.htm). USA historical economic role of international arms trade USA as its history has maintained and pursued its security assistance program that has been critical in promoting USAÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy and national security interests. During the Cold War, USA arms industry realized tremendous growth as anticipation of potential war loomed. However, with the end of Cold War USA military experienced a major downsizing until 1991 when Gulf War presented another opportunity for the military arms industry to flourish. Again, history was to repeat itself after the conclusion of Gulf War with subsequent downsizing taking place, this round at an alarming rate of 25 per cent rate. The reduction also caused ripples among the defense contractors and other government officials as contractors profits reduced due to fallen government procurements. Faced with no reduced procurements from the government and little investment in the industry, military arms investors were faced with only two options: to seek new markets or close down their facilities. The later case proved to be a lethal decision to security of the country especially in long-term due to its associative negative impacts. Therefore, a succinct question asked is, how has the USA economy been linked to arms trade especially in foreign countries? Christopher Akins notes that in the absence of defense exports, the USA leadership in the international aerospace industry would be seriously compromised. The author observes the importance of the aerospace exports to USA economy which he ascertain that during 1997 it accounted for almost $50 billion and which in turn contributed to reduction of USA trade deficit by 18 per cent. Accordingly, if the aerospace exports were absent, then the country would have realized a deficit accumulation of about $214 billion in the year 1997. Hence, according to the author, UISA cannot afford or accept foreign competition to usurp its leading role in the aerospace industry since aerospace companies offered competitive edge in the global industry for USA. During the 1996, RAND National Defense Research Institute carried out a research, which indicated that foreign military sales (FMS) created 300,000 jobs in the whole of USA, and 67 per cent of these jobs were as a result of direct involvement in international arms trade while 37 per cent accounted for indirect jobs. Although the layoffs in such industry would pose insignificant effect to the overall national economy, the evidence and facts are that such layoffs would have significant impact on the local economy that heavily depends on defense industry. The consequences of closing down critical defense production lines, research has sworn that it adversely affects the local economy in many ways. For instances studies shows that layoffs generally remain unemployed for a relative longe r period as compared to workers in other production lines. Such high unemployment rates in turn results into stagnation of the local economy. Further, when a major defense production line shuts down, multiplier effect comes into force, as dependent industries become affected. When workers are laid off, they reduce their consumption of goods and services or relocate to other areas thereby affecting industries within the area of the closed military line. Current event involving international arms trade: USA sale of arms to Taiwan angers China prompting it to Ã¢â¬ËthreatensÃ¢â¬â¢ trade sanctions against USA firms. On 30 January 2010, USA and China engaged in one fierce politico-economy quarry after USA made it reality its earlier intention to sell arms to Taiwan. Writing about the relationship between the two countries, Emmanuel, observed that, Ã¢â¬ USA and China squabbles are legion: unbalanced trade; the renminbiÃ¢â¬â¢s value; the internet; human rights; Tibet; fr eedom of speech; the environment; global warming; and coddling of despotic regimesÃ¢â¬ . China has regarded its relation with Taiwan an Ã¢â¬Ëinternal issueÃ¢â¬â¢ that does not need external involvement. Therefore when the news came in about USA sale of arms to Taiwan China immediately announced that it would henceforth postpone and suspend the current bilateral military programs and even security talks with USA. As to further detail, its punishment measures China also indicated that it would punish Ã¢â¬ËcertainÃ¢â¬â¢ USA companies as a direct response to the actions by the American government to sell sophisticated and advanced weapons to Taiwan. The punishment for the USA industries was to involve imposition of sanctions on the identified companies as a result of, Ã¢â¬Å"incurred severe damage to USA-China RelationsÃ¢â¬ . China went ahead to claim that USAÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, Ã¢â¬Å"constitutes a gross intervention into ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s internal affairs, serious ly endangers ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s national security and also harms ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s peaceful reunifications effortsÃ¢â¬ . China noted that USA was still ambitious to promote and implement BushÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of arms sales to Taiwan while at the same time fostering trade protectionism measures against China. One company to suffer the ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath and furry was Boeing which alongside United Technologies, Lockheed Martin together with Martin was identified to have participated in the sale of military weapons to Taiwan. The company is an aerospace company that operates from its base in Chicago and as a result of China threats of trade sanctions; it became inevitable that Boeing would incur massive loss. Boeing continues to be the major exporter into ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s market supplying almost half of the airline system equipment in China. Analysis: what likely impacts can result from ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s threat? Professor Wu Xinbo was one scholar who captures the UA-China political- cum-economic melee when he observed that this time round China could live up to its threat since it was the government issuing the statement. First, Xinbo observed that Boeing Company apart from selling weapons to Taiwan had massive commercial interests in the ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s market which if sabotaged would have adverse effects both to the company and to the government of China. By sanctioning the company, China would be risking its efforts to recover from the pangs of global recession and that it would be putting its ten of thousands citizens employed by Boeing at economic risk. Since most Chinese market have discriminated USA companies from operating in the domestic market, may be Boeing with success story in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s market could act as a politicoÃ¢â¬âeconomy retaliatory ground for China to Ã¢â¬ËpunishÃ¢â¬â¢ USA, but again China would have to weigh the impacts of such actions on its overall economy. Analyzing the same sale of weapons to Taiwan, Canrong and Chunling, observe that USA apart from pursuing its foreign policy and spicing up its regular frost relationship with Beijing, USA would seem to have been motivated by economic reasons the pact brought. The author notes that, Ã¢â¬Å"the larger order provided by Taiwan is attractive to the United States in the context of the global financial crisisÃ¢â¬ . However, even with this argument the author is at the same time able to dispute such motivation claiming that compared to China, Taiwan constitute a negligent market, which cannot arouse any international desire by a country such as USA. The effect of decline of USA foreign military sales on domestic economy Threats by China to sanctions USA Company would in effect have adverse effects on the domestic economy as far as foreign military trade is concerned. First, USA FMS program affect and impact heavily on USA domestic economy and this is evident in production, employment, price and so on. FMS in essence represent demand by foreign countries for products produced in the USA and for services supplied by US companies and therefore the program represent a component of the total USA exports of goods and services. When demands for gods and services increase companies involved in producing the products or services will respond by increasing their output and as usual, this will require additional workers. Further, the companies will need to increase the need for raw materials from the suppliers and again the suppliers respond by increasing the output. The numerous increases will move through the economy resulting into various kinds of Ã¢â¬ËmultiplierÃ¢â¬â¢ effects on employment, personal income, corporate profits and many more. In addition to these other things to be witnessed include: an associated changes in international financial flows with effects being experienced in the balance of payments and exchange rates where as the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s export continue to go up, the balance of payment s (BOP) surplus increases. When the exchange rate become subjected to adjustment forces, the dollar respond by appreciating and hence BOP surplus will decrease. The Ã¢â¬ËfinancialÃ¢â¬â¢ effects will in mean time be modified in many ways as the income multiplier start to work, for instance, as increases in USA demand for imports goes up, the domestic interest rate will rise, and this will attract inflow of capital from foreign companies. However, when the opposite of these happens, the repercussion and behavior of the multipliers will exactly work opposite. Conclusion Foreign military sales have both positive and negative impacts on the global front. Positive in that, the supplier countries benefit economically while the recipient nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ peace and stability become doubtful. USA relationship with China has been characterized as Ã¢â¬Ëally-foeÃ¢â¬â¢ type with their battlegrounds being largely experienced in trade and diplomacy. As diplomacy may serve the pol itical ends, trade sanctions usually act to Ã¢â¬Ëbilaterally suffocateÃ¢â¬â¢ the other partner manageable disciplined actions. Trade sanctions by China on one of the USA Company involved in military sales would in great measure results into negative impacts on the domestic market, since FMS remains some of the key exports of USA. Therefore there role on the domestic economy is immense. Therefore, despite the misunderstanding between USA and China over FMS to Taiwan, the fact remain that when conducted responsibly FMS has the ability to serve the interest of United States in the best and economic way. Works Cited Akins, Christopher F. Ã¢â¬Å"Security Assistance and National Security in the Global Economy.Ã¢â¬ The DISAM Journal, 1999. 15 October 2010. http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/v.21_4/akins.pdf. Associated Press. Ã¢â¬Å"Can China carry out threat of sanctions?Ã¢â¬ Online Article by World Business, 2 January 2010. 15 October 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35185661. Can rong, Jin and Chunling, Dong. Tension on the Rise from Arms Sales. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s National English News Weekly. 2010. 15 October 2010. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/world/txt/2010-01/29/content_243430.htm. Congress of the United States. The effect of foreign military sales on the USA economy. 1976. 15 October 2010. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA528583Location=U2doc=GetTRDoc.pdf. Emmanuel. Ã¢â¬Å"Fire Your Guns: Taiwan and US-China Relations.Ã¢â¬ Online Article by Internal Political Economy Zone, 30 January 2010. 15 October 2010. http://ipezone.blogspot.com/2010/01/fire-your-guns-taiwan-and-us-china.html. Holtom, Paul and Bromley, M. The International Arms Trade: Difficult to Define, Measure, and Control, 2010. 15 October 2010. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2010_07-08/holtom-bromley Lubin, Gus. Ã¢â¬Å"China Threatens Ã¢â¬ËUnprecedented SanctionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Against Boeing After US Arms Sales to Taiwan.Ã¢â¬ Online Article by Business Insider, 2 February 2010. 15 October 2010. http://www.businessinsider.com/china-threatens-unprecedented-sanctions-against-boeing-2010-2. Rebecca, M. The Review of Economics and Statistics. The MIT Press. 1989. 15 October 2010. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1928068. Shah, Anup. The Arms Trade is Big Business. Online Article on Global Issues. 2010. 15 October 2010. http://www.globalissues.org/article/74/the-arms-trade-is-big-business. Sorenson, David S. Ã¢â¬Å"Arming the Pacific Rim: Explaining Asian Arms Sales Patterns after the Cold War.Ã¢â¬ Paper presented at the IV Oceanic Conference on International Studies, Auckland, New Zealand. 2 July 2010. 15 October 2010. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:_vAc7v5zqT4J:www.ocis.org.nz/ocis/files/Sorenson.doc+usa+arms+trade+with+Asian+countriescd=11hl=enct=clnkgl=ke. Footnotes Paul Holtom and M, Bromley, Ã¢â¬Å"The International Arms Trade: Difficult to Define, Measure, and ControlÃ¢â¬ .2010. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2010_07-08/holtom-bromley Paul Holt om and M, Bromley 1 Paul Holtom and M, Bromley M, Rebecca, Ã¢â¬Å"The Review of Economics and StatisticsÃ¢â¬ , (MA, The MIT Press, 1989) 179 http://www.jstor.org/pss/1928068. M, Rebecca M, Rebecca Anup, Shah, Ã¢â¬Å"The Arms Trade is Big BusinessÃ¢â¬ Online Article on Global Business. 2010. 1 http://www.globalissues.org/article/74/the-arms-trade-is-big-business. Anup, Shah Anup, Shah Anup, Shah Anup, Shah Paul Holtom and M, Bromley Washington Office on Latin America. Ã¢â¬Å"Foreign Military Sales in 2010Ã¢â¬ , A Civilian guide to USA Defense and Security Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean. 2009. 15 October 2010. http://justf.org/taxonomy/term/31. David, S, Sorenson, Ã¢â¬Å"Arming the Pacific Rim: Explaining Asian Arms Sales Patterns after the Cold WarÃ¢â¬ Paper presented at the IV Oceanic Conference on International Studies. (Auckland, New Zealand, 2 July 2010) 1 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:_vAc7v5zqT4J:www.ocis.org.nz/ocis/files/Sorenso n.doc+usa+arms+trade+with+Asian+countriescd=11hl=enct=clnkgl=ke David, S, Sorenson 1 David, S, Sorenson Anon. Ã¢â¬Å"The USA Defense Industry and Arms SalesÃ¢â¬ . N.d. 15 October 2010. http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297a/U.S.%20Defense%20Industry%20and%20Arms%20Sales.htm Christopher, F, Akins, Ã¢â¬Å"Security Assistance and National Security in the Global EconomyÃ¢â¬ (The DISAM Journal, 1999) 1 http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/v.21_4/akins.pdf. Christopher, F, Akins 2 Christopher, F, Akins 2 Christopher, F, Akins Christopher, F, Akins Christopher, F, Akins Christopher, F, Akins Christopher, F, Akins 3 Christopher, F, Akins Emmanuel, Ã¢â¬Å"Fire Your Guns: Taiwan and US-China Relations.Ã¢â¬ (Online Article by Internal Political Economy Zone, 30 January 2010). 1 http://ipezone.blogspot.com/2010/01/fire-your-guns-taiwan-and-us-china.html. Emmanuel Emmanuel Emmanuel Emmanuel Lubin, Gus, Ã¢â¬Å"China Threatens Ã¢â¬ËUnprecedented SanctionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Against Boeing after US Arms Sale s to Taiwan.Ã¢â¬ (Online Article by Business Insider, 2 February 2010) 1 http://www.businessinsider.com/china-threatens-unprecedented-sanctions-against-boeing-2010-2. Lubin, Gus Associated Press, Ã¢â¬Å"Can China carry out threat of sanctions?Ã¢â¬ (Online Article by World Business, 2 January 2010) 1 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35185661. Associated Press Associated Press Canrong, Jin and Chunling, Dong, Ã¢â¬Å"Tension on the Rise from Arms SalesÃ¢â¬ (ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s National English News Weekly, 2010) 1 http://www.bjreview.com.cn/world/txt/2010-01/29/content_243430.htm Canrong, Jin and Chunling, Dong Congress of the United States, Ã¢â¬Å"The effect of foreign military sales on the USA economyÃ¢â¬ . 1976. 7 http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA528583Location=U2doc=GetTRDoc.pdf Congress of the United States Congress of the United States Congress of the United States Congress of the United States Congress of the United States This term paper on The International Arms Trade was written and submitted by user Juan V. to help you with your own studies. 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Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Two-Way Prepositions Part 3 Believe it or not, two German accusative/dative prepositions make yet another distinction that English does not! The common prepositionsÃ anÃ andÃ aufÃ can both mean on or at but they differ in how they are applied to surfaces. If an object is on or near a vertical surface (a wall, a chalkboard, etc.), then usually the prepositionanÃ is used. If a horizontal surface (a tabletop, a floor, etc.) is involved, thenÃ aufÃ is used to express on or at. Look at the illustrations below... Horizontal and Vertical ON or ATANÃ (vertical) andÃ AUFÃ (horizontal) ANÃ Ã VERTICAL -Ã SENKRECHTÃ Ã die WandÃ the wallÃ¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹ AnÃ objectÃ approachinga vertical surface.The accus. phrase an die Wandanswers the questionÃ wohin? AnÃ objectÃ on or atthe wall.Ã (vertical surface)The dative phrase an der Wandanswers the questionÃ wo? Ã AUFÃ Ã HORIZONTAL -Ã WAAGERECHTÃ Ã der TischÃ the tableÃ¢â¬â¹ AnÃ objectÃ approachinga horizontal surface.The accus. phrase auf den Tischanswers the questionÃ wohin? AnÃ objectÃ onthe table.Ã (horizontal surface)The dative phrase auf dem Tischanswers the questionÃ wo? Now, if youve been paying attention, can you say what the dative prepositional phraseÃ an dem TischÃ orÃ am TischÃ means? UnlikeÃ auf dem Tisch,Ã an dem TischÃ means at or next to the table. If you are sitting at the table, you areÃ am Tisch. If you are sitting on top of the table, you areÃ auf dem Tisch! German is being very consistent here. If you are talking about your location in relation to the vertical part of the table (the legs, etc.), then you useÃ an. If youre talking about your location in relation to the horizontal top of the table, then you useÃ auf. This logic also applies to expressions likeÃ an der DonauÃ (on the Danube). The use ofÃ anÃ refers to being on the edge of the river. If were actually on the Danube (in a boat), then wereÃ auf der Donau. More ExamplesÃ (A accus., D dative)Here are some examples of the uses ofÃ anÃ andÃ auf: wo?Ã an der EckeÃ D - on/at the cornerwohin?Ã an die EckeÃ A - to the cornerwo?Ã an der GrenzeÃ D - on/at the borderwohin?Ã an die GrenzeÃ A - to the borderwo?Ã am RheinÃ D - on the Rhinewohin?Ã an den RheinÃ A - to the Rhinewo?Ã auf dem DachÃ D - on the roofwohin?Ã auf das DachÃ A - onto the roof Idiomatic ExpressionsBesides their normal uses,Ã anÃ andÃ aufÃ are also used in many idiomatic expressions and verbal phrases. Here are some examples: auf der BankÃ - at the bankjemandem auf der Tasche liegenÃ - to live off of someoneauf der StraÃÅ¸e liegenÃ A - to be down and outjemanden an der Nase herumfÃ ¼hrenÃ - to lead someone around by the nose, take them for a foolworan liegt das?Ã - whats the reason for that? Most of the other two-way prepositions are used in idiomatic expressions as well. Related Links The Four German CasesA guide to the four German cases: Accusative, Dative, Genitive and Nominative. Includes cases and theÃ two-wayÃ prepositions. A guide to the many ways to say by in German. Prepositional PitfallsPotential problems and how to avoid them.